Need for Diversification
The primitive method of cultivation of Turmeric and Ginger gives very marginal return. Now, the average yield per hect. of Turmeric is hardly 10 quintals and that of Ginger is 20 Quintals. But with improved package of practice the yeild of Turmeric can be raised to 50 quintals and that of Ginger to 150 quintals per hectare. Secondly ,by changing the present inferior varieties with high grade varieties, there will be qualitative change in the products which will fetch more price of Turmeric as well Ginger. The traditional method of processing of Turmeric produces very inferior quality and mass scale orientation is needed for production of quality dried turmeric through scientific method of curing. Ginger is generally marketed in raw form and production of dry Ginger is not known to the tribals. Dry Ginger can be produced easily by imparting training to the cultivators.
Value addition to the raw form of Turmeric and Ginger is practically unknown to the farmers of the district.The advantage of value added products is that for the same volume of a primary product, a higher price is realised by means of scientific curing, processing and packing.
The intrinsic yield potential of turmeric and ginger is not yet exploited in the state and Country as is evident from the following table.
|04||Highest Record Yield||14500||11500|
The Hindu : Survey of Indian Agriculture(1991)
The above statistics implies that the present yield of Turmeric and ginger can be increased to 14.5 and 5.7 times respectively if high yielding varieties and scientific practices are adopted in the district.
It will not be out of place to mention here the trend of Turmeric and Ginger demand in the world by 2000 A.D. The projection of the All India Coordinatiion Research Project (ICAR) is given below.
World demand by 2000 A.D. in Tons
|Sl No.||Commodities average growth rate||Annual (%)||1990||1995||2000|
This indicates a tremendous scope for developement of Ginger & Turmeric in the district.The scenerio of export potential is equally encouraging. During 1990-91, the percentage of Turmeric and Ginger was 6.01 and 4.58 respectively of the total spices exported during that year from the country. High grade varieties coupled with scientific method of cultivation will produce value added Turmeric and Ginger in the project which can have a large demand in the country as well as abroad.
Therfore in order to attain an optimal income generation it is necessary that our district swith=ches over from the old traditional method of cultivation and processing of Turmeric and Ginger, in order to become famous for spices in India and abroad.
The High Altitude Research Station of Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology(OUAT) at Pottangi of koraput district is mainly devoted to development of Ginger and Turmeric. Koraput is the neighbouring district of Kandhamal. A Regional Research Station of O.U.A.T., G.Udayagiri is also functioning within the district. Scientific and technical knowledge available in these institutes will be utilised for the overal development of Turmeric , Ginger and floriculture in the district.
Moreover, there is a well organised Horticulture Department which can render its expertise for development of these crops. Broadly the programme envisages :-
- GENERATION OF EMPLOYMENT
- POVERTY ALLEVIATION
- CONSERVATION OF FOREST.
- INSTILLING A FEELING OF SELF CONFIDENCE AND SELF RELIANCE AMONG THE PEOPLE.
Steps to achieve the objectives :-
- Extension of area.
- Replacement of varieties.
- Adoption of scientific method of cultivation and processing.
- Marketing through Cooperative network.
- Development of ethos of people towards value addition and conservation of forest.
Keeping the above broad objectives in view a strategy has been developed to accelerate the pace of progress with a view to have a combined onslaught for ecological improvement as well as economic development of the beneficiaries. It is envisaged to involve the non-governmental organisation as well as to dovetail the various schemes like IRDP, DPAP, JRY, DWCRA, etc. to accelerate the pace of development for achieving the desired objectives within a period of 4 to 5 years.
Removal of poverty is the main theme of development planing in the country. More than 90% of the people of this district are below the poverty line. It is estimated that 1.00 lakh families are below the poverty line . This programme aims at creation of additional employment opportunities for the rural poor to eliminate poverty by improving their economic condition.
The pace of development of economic activity in the district is slow because of lack of communication, illiteracy, poverty and infrastructural constraints. Plans based on the existing land, labour and crop will elliminate the gastation period of adoptability. This factor has been in built in the project formulation for obtaining desired success with in a very short period.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the farmers of the district. The average land holding is very less. There are 51.6 % of marginal farmers and 29.1% of small farmers who constitute more than 80% of the agrarian community. Low availability and low productivity of land and primitive methods of cultivation provide bare sustenance to these small amd marginal farmers . As such they are forced to resort to "Podu Cultivation" which rapidly denudes the valuable forest wealth of the district.
Generally cultivation of cereals, oil seeds, and pulses on the up lands are non-remunerative in this hilly district. So, cultivation of cash crops like Ginger and Turmeric symbiotic with forestry is the most suitable choice that can bring about a radical change in the living standards of the rural poor can also arrest the denudation of forest by weaning away podu cultivation.
44 numbers of Farm Mechanisation Societies have so far been organised in the district and each society has been provided with a Tractor. These societies will work as the primary units for implementation of the project. At present 5 nos of such societies, one for each block, have been identified for taking up the project programme in the 1st phase. the members of the society will produce Turmeric and Ginger at the field level and deliver it to the Federal Apex Society. These societies will play a pivotal role in implementing the project.
Turmeric powder is a well known product from Turmeric which has commercial importance in the market. It is proposed in the project to provide small grinding units to the members of 5 DWCRA groups so that they can start cottage industries at field level. Requisite training on improved techniques of processing, packing and marketing will be imparted to these groups so that a network of production centres will come up in the district. Moreover it is envisaged to involve Mahila Samitis and Yuvak Sanghas for creating a awareness among the masses for protection of forests which provides the most important ingredient of mulching materials for successful cultivation of Turmeric and Ginger.
Implementation of the project will need huge quantities of improved seed materials. the limited quantity of seed available from the research station require rapid multiplication programme. It will not only provide required planting materials but also serve as a feed back to the other farmers for subsequent expansion of the programme .
The service of the N.G.O.s will be utilised for the following purposes.
Sensitisation programmes will consist of motivation, creating the right environment and instilling confidence among IRDP families, building rapport between the growers and field functionaries.
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